Immaterial Transfers with Material Consequences
Last year, a colleague pointed me to an article by Roland L. Trope in September/October 2006 IEEE Security & Privacy, Immaterial Transfers with Material Consequences. From the abstract:
The need for such regulations is clear, but many firms underestimate the challenges of complying with the defense trade controls embodied in the US International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Companies hoping to enter into defense contracts must therefore redefine their basic approach to technical data because the ITARs require that they control the destinations of their communications. For example, the ITARs prohibit unlicensed communications of sensitive data to foreign destinations (another country or a foreign national).
Trope recounts a fictitious company's plans and their problems with ITAR and IT. Based on real events, in March 2006 The Boeing Company and L-3 Communications agreed to pay civil penalties of $15 million and $7 million USD respectively for not complying with ITAR. The consequences and fines for illegal exports are real. If the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls determines a violation(s) were unintentional, it can impose a civil penalty up to $500,000 per violation. If it determines violations to be intentional, it can impose up to $1 million for each violation. This can spell numerous violations and result in huge fines if for example, over the course of one day hundreds of emails are exchanged between engineers who are both US Citizens and foreign nationals.
The company planned to encrypt all sensitive traffic and use code names for email attachments containing sensitive data. They believed using code names to disguise data would minimize the risk, but in reality, engineers would select select names from a theme for one project, and names from another theme for another. It wouldn't take long for someone to group the emails into their respective project. Many companies adopt a policy and reliance on encryption for protecting their most sensitive data. If a laptop goes missing, it is deemed not a risk because it was encrypted with X algorithm. Not in the eyes of the ITAR, which must distinguish between procedures that retain control over data and procedures that relinquish control. By making it available to a foreign national to obtain a copy, you are committing an export. Encryption is not enough to comply with ITAR because it is not a durable safeguard. I think we can all agree on this, that given enough computing power and time, a determined attacker will crack the encryption.
The article also brings up the issue of disclosure and transfer of data. Data can be disclosed orally or visually through any number of means such as email, instant message, presentations, etc. If one makes it possible for a foreign national to obtain a copy of sensitive data during transmission, an export has occurred. The company in the story stored sensitive data in an unlocked closet at one of their locations. Foreign nationals visiting from other countries would be allowed to store their briefcases in that closet, and consequently give them access to ITAR-controlled data.
Protecting sensitive data, whether it be ITAR-controlled, classified, or restricted internal communication is important for every company. Much of the policies and solutions we implement ignore the problems that arise when people need to decide on the fly which files contain sensitive information. It's a huge undertaking to classify existing data, but you gotta start somewhere -- create a (scalable) data classification policy and start with all new data.blog comments powered by Disqus